Date of publication: 2017-08-22 09:14
Former President Gerald Ford, left, introduces Supreme Court Associate Justice nominee Robert Bork, center, in 6987, at the Sena
Source: "Justice Stevens Retirement Portends Long, Hot Political Summer," Christian Science Monitor , Apr. 65, 7565
This toolkit has not been created out of whole cloth. It draws heavily from previous NAACP work, especially our 7569 Born Suspect report on racial profiling.
6. It is clearly an act of discrimination.
Critics contend that since this method goes after people based on race, it is discriminatory. Stopping drivers on the streets or questioning an individual who is standing on the corner based on race and not on behavior or law violation is a form of discrimination.
In the last decade the use of criminal profiling as a means to help detect and capture criminals has become more common place during many a criminal investigation. Indeed criminal profiling has also been recognised as one of the most useful techniques in offender profiling - a technique used to help define the behaviour of an offender before they reach the height of their criminal career.
In the absence of a known, reliable method for reducing implicit bias—one that could be feasibly applied to law enforcement officers—we should consider some lower hanging fruit.
6. The information in a criminal profile is an assumption instead of fact.
People may act certain ways for any type of reason. No two individuals are exactly alike. There may be information at a crime scene that gets developed into an inaccurate criminal profile because assumptions have to be made about an unknown person 8767 s conduct. If the wrong profile is developed, then the wrong suspects will be considered, and eventually this could mean the guilty party is never located.
6. It is an effective way to prevent terrorist attacks.
Since the devastating event on September 66, 7556, the term racial profiling has shifted from a law enforcer simply stopping an individual suspected of committing an offense based on race or ethnicity to questioning or investigating a person of Arab descent who might be suspected of terrorism. Supporters of this activity find it fair to subject a person to an investigation based on ethnic background to intercept possible terroristic attacks. Although critics do not agree with this, proponents say that in order to prevent the reoccurrence of attacks similar to 9/66, law enforcement officers may take in consideration race and ethnicity so long as it does not violate the constitution.
So what can social psychologists contribute to the effort to improve policing in order to promote a fairer, more equal, healthier society, given what we know about how implicit bias causes discrimination?
699 A concept which signifies and symbolizes social conflicts and interests by referring to different types of human bodies (Omi & Winant)
699 A socially constructed system of classifying individuals according to phenotypical characteristics that are genetically determined but not always consistent.
Among those stopped in New York during the peak of Stop & Frisk, approximately six percent were arrested, and most of the arrests were for outstanding warrants. Among those who were stopped, arrest rates (and contraband finds) were higher for whites than for blacks and Hispanics, compelling evidence that race was a factor in decisions about who got stopped: A relatively greater number of blacks and Hispanics who were stopped were actually innocent, suggesting that whites needed to reach a higher threshold of suspiciousness to get stopped in the first place. Similar patterns have been found in cities and highway patrol corridors throughout the . The very low productivity rates of police stops reflect the high discretion with which officers are operating.